While I don't have my desktop and running yet, I reinstalled Morrowind on my laptop yesterday. As I get back into it, I'll link here to mods and mod lists and such.
I'll start off by linking to Morrowind 2009 which just had all of the broken links fixed this month, so that's a good starting point.
After that, Morrowind Mythic Mods has several lists and intros to modding Morrowind, although I don't know how up-to-date the links are.
For newbies to Morrowind, I'll note Gluby's Guide to a Modded Morrowind, which while incomplete, is also a good place to start in addition to Morrowind 2009.
If I reference a mod, patch, or anything else without explaining it, it will be because it's one of the mods or patches that the above newbie guides reference and/or discuss that are considered essential for any game, even if you're not running any other mods.
Of course, if you have any questions about anything, feel free to ask.
And finally, the reason I created this thread: Shelter from Magnus' Blaze, a tech demo for real-time shadows.
While just a tech demo, this is still impressive.
EDIT: I'd be remiss to post this without linking to Morrowind on Steam.